The globe experienced the seventh warmest June since record keeping began in 1880. The Arctic sea ice extent was the second smallest extent for June on record.
The monthly analysis from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center is part of the suite of climate services NOAA provides government, business and community leaders so they can make informed decisions.
Global Temperature Highlights: June
- The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for June 2011 was the seventh warmest on record at 60.94 F (16.08 C), which is 1.04 F (0.58 C) above the 20th century average of 59.9 F (15.5 C). The margin of error associated with this temperature is +/- 0.13 F (0.07 C).
- Separately, the global land surface temperature was 1.60 F (0.89 C) above the 20th century average of 55.9 F (13.3 C), which was the fourth warmest June on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.23 F (0.13 C). Warmer-than-average conditions occurred across most of Russia, Europe, and China, the Middle East, eastern Canada, Mexico, and the southern United States. Cooler-than-average regions included the northern and western United States, part of western Canada, and most of Australia.
- The June global ocean surface temperature was 0.85 F (0.47 C) above the 20th century average of 61.5 F (16.4 C), making it the 10th warmest June on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.07 F (0.04 C). The warmth was most pronounced across the central north Pacific, equatorial west Pacific, the Labrador Sea, the equatorial Atlantic, and much of the mid-latitude southern oceans.
- Australia had its eighth coolest average minimum temperature on record for June. The Northern Territory had its coolest average minimum temperature and eighth coolest average maximum temperature for June since records began in 1950.
- June 2011 was the second warmest June for China since records began in 1951, with the temperature 1.8 F (1.0 C) above average. The northwestern province of Gansu had its warmest June on record.
- New Zealand reported its third warmest June since records began in 1909, with the temperature 2.7 F (1.5 C) above the monthly average.
Global Temperature Highlights: Year to date
- The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for the January - June period was 0.90 F (0.50 C) above the 20th century average of 56.3 F (13.5 C), making it the 11th warmest first six months on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.16 F (0.09 C).
- The January - June worldwide land surface temperature was 1.39 F (0.77 C) above the 20th century average - the 12th warmest such period on record. The margin of error is +/- 0.36 F (0.20 C). Warmer-than-average conditions were prevalent across most of Russia and Europe, Mexico, the southern and eastern United States, most of Alaska, and northwestern Africa. Cooler-than-average regions prevailed over much of the northern United States, Southeast Asia, part of Kazakhstan and eastern Russia, northern Ukraine, and much of Australia.
- The global ocean surface temperature for the year to date was 0.72 F (0.40 C) above the 20th century average and was the 11th warmest such period on record. The margin of error is +/-0.07 F (0.04 C). The warmth was most pronounced across most of the central and western Pacific, the north Atlantic near Greenland, the equatorial Atlantic, and much of the mid-latitude southern oceans.
- Neither El Niño nor La Niña conditions were present during June 2011. According to NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, these ENSO neutral conditions are expected to continue into the Northern Hemisphere fall 2011.
Polar Sea Ice and Precipitation Highlights
- The average Arctic sea ice extent during June was 9.44 percent below average, ranking as the second smallest June extent since satellite records began in 1979.
- The June 2011 Antarctic sea ice extent was 0.56 percent below average and was the 12th smallest June extent since records began in 1979.
- Many regions of the Arctic experienced below average ice extent during June, particularly the Kara Sea along the Siberian coast. Southern regions of the sea, which are typically ice covered by the end of June, were completely ice free.
- Unseasonal rainfall was prevalent in some parts of South Africa during June. Twelve stations reported June rainfall amounts more than ten times higher than average.
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* Included in this report: NOAA is now making it easier to find information about margins of error associated with its global temperature calculations. NCDC previously displayed this information in certain graphics associated with the report, but it will now publish these ranges in the form of “plus or minus” values associated with each monthly temperature calculation. These values are calculated using techniques published in peer-reviewed scientific literature. More information.